Breast cancer ie breast cancer is one of the main causes of deaths due to cancer in Indian women. It is also main cancer affecting women. Come, let’s learn about it in detail.
According to a study, in the year 2016, about 1,18,000 cases were found in the country and more than 5,20,000 cases were already registered. The results published in the prestigious magazine Nature throw light on its reality. According to the Globoken 2018 data, there were a total of 11,57,294 new cases of cancer in both genders in India, while the five-year prevalence rate for breast cancer cases was 4,05,456. To put it simply, breast cancer is the largest type of cancer in Indian women. Although treatment of this cancer is possible, but despite this, a large number of deaths occur every year. Every year October is celebrated as Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Dr. Simi Bhatia of SRL Diagnostics gave important information about it.
Symptoms of breast cancer
Breast cancer occurs when the cells inside the breasts grow uncontrollably. This usually happens in milk-producing glands, ie lobules or ducts, which carry milk to the nipple. Cancer can also spread outside the breasts through blood or lymph.
It is often not known for a long time, especially in India where women are unable to talk about it openly. In breast cancer, a lump is formed in the breasts or there is a change in the shape or size of the breast. Some other symptoms are the formation of a new lump in the breast or armpit, the size or swelling, itching, the skin layers of the breasts, the pain in any part of the breast especially the nipple.
Women in India often do not want to talk about the lumps in their breasts, their shape or size. She could not talk to her husband or even other women in the family about this. Even women of most sections of society do not understand the changes in their breasts. Therefore, it is very important that women learn to examine their breasts themselves and do it regularly at least once a month.
- At the age of menstruation, women can examine their breasts a few days after the period. When the breasts are in their right shape. Women whose periods have stopped, they can choose one day of the month for it.
- It is important to know that the area of the breasts extends from near your sides to the ribs. Check for any lumps around the nipples, around the nipples. See if an unusual lump is being formed.
- Keep a record of your inquiry. If there is a change in any part of your breast, then you will be able to understand.
If you feel any change or lump in the breasts, then remember that not every lump is cancerous. In fact, eight out of ten bales are not cancerous. Although the lump is cancerous or not, the doctor has to be biopsied to find out. In view of the increasing cases of breast cancer and the increasing mortality due to it, it is very important to spread awareness about breast cancer. Both men and women should understand this, so that timely diagnosis and treatment can be done.
Its symptoms play an important role in identifying breast cancer. Treatment of this disease is completely possible, but the delay in its diagnosis increases the chances of death, so as soon as you suspect, contact the doctor immediately.
One method of diagnosis is mammography, in which changes in the tissues of the breasts are seen with the help of low-level X-rays. If some abnormalities are seen in mammography, breast cancer is examined, in which X-rays are taken from different angles and then ultrasound is done. Women are advised to undergo mammography every year after the age of 40, whether or not they show any symptoms related to the breasts.
Other methods of investigation
Fine needle aspiration cytology is another method of screening for cancer tumors in the breasts. In this process, the needle is inserted into the lump and aspirate is drained. The cells are then transferred to the slide and examined with a microscope.
Histopathology slides require a high level of expertise to examine. This process is very complex. Several major diagnostics chains are partnering with IT giants to make accurate and rapid diagnostics with the help of Artificial Intelligence and other digital technologies. For example, the change in digital pathology is the aim of Microsoft AI for health program. It is currently in its second phase. If the tumor is malignant, then breast cancer is confirmed.
Five stages of breast cancer
It is divided into five stages based on the growth of breast cancer.
Zero stage – When breast cancer is non-invasive, there is no evidence that the cancer can spread to nearby tissues at this stage.
First stage- Cancer becomes invasive in this, but it is limited to the area of the breasts. At this time, the size of the tumor is less than 2 cm.
Second stage- It has two sub-categories and has the following features. In the first category, the maximum tumor size is 2 cm and it spreads to the lymph node in the armpit or the tumor is between 2 and 5 cm and does not spread to the lymph node. In the second category, the size of the tumor increases from 5 cm or 2 to 5 cm and spreads to the lymph nodes.
Third stage – This is the endemic advanced stage of cancer, which is divided into three categories. In the first category, the tumor is less than 5 cm in size and spreads to the lymph node. After this, the mounting clamp starts to form. In the second category, the tumor can be of any size but spreads to the chest wall or the skin of the breasts. In this, lumps are formed in the skin and there is swelling in the breasts. In the third category, the tumor can be of any size, but spreads to the lymph node and can spread around the skin of the breasts and around the chest wall.
The fourth stage – is actually an advanced stage, in which cancer spreads from the breasts to other parts of the body.
Breast cancer is treated in many ways. It often depends on the stage of cancer and on how serious the growth of cancer cells in the breasts is. Common techniques include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormone therapy. Surgical options such as lumpectomy (removal of the lump) or mastectomy (removal of the entire breasts) may also be chosen depending on the severity of the case. It is therefore important that the patient is diagnosed before the second stage.
Prevention in any disease is a better option than treatment. Although the direct causes of breast cancer are not known, it has been found that it is less likely to occur in women living healthy lives. To reduce the chances of breast cancer, pay attention to the following.
- Consumption of alcohol increases the risk, so do not consume it.
- There is scientific evidence that smoking increases the chances of breast cancer, especially in the pre-menopausal condition. So it is better to stay away from it.
- Obesity or overweight increases the chances of breast cancer. It is important for elders to be physically active. Do at least two-and-a-half hours of light aerobic or quarter-heavy exercise.
- Eat nutritious food.
- Breastfeeding can prevent cancer. Also, breastfeeding the infant for a long time also has more benefits.
- Avoid high-level radiation and environmental pollution.
Treatment of breast cancer is 100 percent possible if diagnosed on time and treatment is started as soon as possible. Although women are advised to adopt a healthy lifestyle, check yourself regularly, if there is any doubt, contact the doctor immediately. Men should also cooperate in regular screening, diagnosis and treatment of women. Although breast cancer mostly occurs to women, but men can also. Therefore, take this disease seriously and cooperate to each other as much as possible.