China has allowed people to have three children to cope with the population structure and aging population. The government has suffered many losses from previous policies.
Chinese President Xi Jinping
China’s Child Policy Explained: The Chinese government has relaxed the rules related to family planning and announced that now the couple can have three children. State media Xinhua said that this decision was taken after a meeting chaired by President Xi Jinping (China Child Policy Today). Along with this, many other facilities will also be changed, so that people do not shy away from having children, such as rules related to children’s insurance, maternity leave and child care services will be improved. This decision has been taken at a time when recently, China has made public the statistics related to the population.
These figures showed that the pace of population growth has slowed down in China and the youngest children have been born after 1960. The number of children born here last year is 12 million. With this, the Chinese government has realized the danger under which the old population (elderly population) in the country is expected to be more than the youth by 2050. This is the population that needs support. Discussions about the elderly population in China had intensified for some time and after the release of the population figures, more concern was raised about it, after which it was expected that the government can take a big decision.
When and why was the ‘One Child Policy’ introduced?
The root of today’s decision of China is hidden in its past. It begins, after Mao Zedong took over (China Child Policy History). He was considered a revolutionary leader and under his leadership, the revolution of China was also successful. Under his rule, from 1946 to 1976 (30 years) an average of 31,998,894 (3 crore 19 lakh 98 thousand 894) people lost their lives. The reason behind this was their inhuman economic policies. He implemented the Great Leap Forward under this. He took all possible steps to bring a communist revolution. Due to which there was resentment among the people.
After Mao’s death in 1978, Deng Xiao Ping (China One Child Policy Benefits) came to power in 1979. He is known for changing the map of China. Liberalization in India started in the 1990s but it started in China from 1979 itself. As soon as he came to power, he understood that China’s population is high, economic development is not happening as expected and people are not happy due to the non-popularity of the Communist Party. People were not happy after Mao’s departure. Deng knew the dangers of the growing population and implemented a ‘One Child Policy’ to rein in it.
Why did the ‘One Child Policy’ end?
The ‘One Child Policy’ officially ended in 2016. Also, people were allowed to have two children. China had a lot to gain from a child-bearing policy and lost a lot. From 1979 to 2016, China saw economic growth, it is said that GDP has been recorded here in double digit for two decades. Resources in the country have been defended (China One Child Policy Study). In terms of economy, this policy gave benefits to China but it also caused some losses. Here the fertility rate has come down drastically.
The disadvantage is that the sex ratio has increased in China (China One Child Policy Consequences). Here, in the ‘One Child Policy’, people gave preference to producing boys and there was an increase in female feticide. Due to this, at one time 120 men were left with just 100 women. While the youth population was more in China in 1950, the elderly population is expected to be more by 2050. The old population means that the number of elderly people is increasing rapidly. There are such figures that by 2050, the number of people over 50 years of age in China will be more.
Number of elderly growing rapidly?
The number of elderly people in China is increasing rapidly. According to the website of the United Nations Children’s Fund-UNICEF, the population of others dependent on others in China is constantly increasing. UNICEF quoted United Nations Population Division (UNPD) data as saying that the child dependency rate (children aged 0–14 years) in China decreased sharply between 1980–2015. While the old-age dependency rate (65 years or older) is continuously increasing.
At present, the total dependency rate in China is 38 percent, which is quite low globally. But by 2055, it is estimated to be around 75 percent. Which is much higher than the estimated global average. Higher the dependency rate means a decline in the number of working class for GDP. If the working population will decrease, then the economy of the country will be affected (Dependency Rate in China). This is the reason why the Chinese government has also said to give relaxation in the rules related to retirement. The government has said that more reforms will be done in this direction.
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