If we talk about biogas, it is a flammable gas. So today we are trying to give some important information in view of setting up Biogas Plant. This type of gas is manufactured through the fermentation of biomass in biogas plants. This gas can also be referred to as a gas resulting from the biological decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It is derived from biogenic substances. Therefore it is also called a type of biofuel.
At present, biogas can also be considered a renewable source of energy. That is why it becomes very necessary to talk about this topic called Biogas Plant. Various organic waste such as dead plant and animal products, animal dung, kitchen waste, etc. can be used as raw material for making biogas. This is the reason that sometimes it is also known as Gobar Gas. That is to say, the waste around you can be converted into gaseous fuel. Biogas consists primarily of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide, and may also contain small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) moisture and siloxanes.
And we all know very well that various gases such as methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO) can be oxidized or combusted with oxygen. Therefore, biogas can also be easily used for cooking fuel or for any other heating purpose. This gas can also be used to convert gas into electricity or heat in a gas engine. This is the reason that setting up a Biogas Plant at present can be beneficial from the point of view of earning and business. Biogas can also be compressed like natural gas, so it can also be used to power motor vehicles.
What is a Biogas Plant?
If we talk about a Biogas Plant, this name is given to such an anaerobic digester, which treats the domestic waste i.e. waste or energy crops. This product called biogas can be produced using an anaerobic digester, a biogas plant may consist of the following ingredients.
Concrete Tank (Digester): In this tank itself, waste etc. is dumped and the organic waste is digested by the microbes here to get methane gas.
floating cover: Another important component of a biogas plant is the floating cover which is placed on top of the tank and this cover keeps on increasing as the amount of gas in the tank also keeps on increasing.
Outlet: Outlet means a structure that is connected to the tank through a pipe and through this pipe the gas generated in the tank is removed and used.
Slurry Collector: Cow dung is mixed with water along with other organic waste in the slurry collector. This is done because the rumen part of the cow’s stomach contains bacterial methanogens. And they are also present in cow dung, and they also act as organic waste to produce methane gas.
Sludge Collector: Sludge collector can also be called sludge collector, through this the available spent slurry in the tank is removed from this section. And this sludge can be used as manure or fertilizer for various purposes.
Biogas uses and markets
At present, setting up of a Biogas Plant can be beneficial because Biogas does not cause any adverse effect on the environment, and it is considered an environmentally friendly gas. It can be used for cooking, drawing, cooling, heating etc. Apart from this, biogas is also used for electricity generation, methanol and steam generation. It also has some other uses in various fields, the list of which is as follows.
- Use as domestic fuel.
- Use of biogas in electricity generation.
- Decentralized fuel supply and waste disposal.
- Gas is a great alternative to various types of wood, dung, agricultural residues, petrol diesel, electric fuel etc.
- Biogas plant plays an important role in waste management.
- Production of bio CNG.
By producing biogas, the entrepreneur is working to convert various types of waste such as agricultural, animal, industrial and municipal waste into energy. Therefore, the government also tries to help such projects as much as possible. At present, if we talk about India, according to one figure, about 2.07 billion m3 of biogas is being produced here per year. Biomass is one of the major energy sources used in rural India, which covers about 96% of the energy sources in rural India.
Machinery and Raw Material Required for Bio Gas Plant
To set up a Biogas Plant, the entrepreneur needs different types of machinery and equipment, it can cost lakhs of rupees to buy or install them. But since this plant converts various types of organic waste into biogas. Therefore, it is not only eco-friendly, but it is also helpful in maintaining cleanliness in the environment. Therefore, many schemes have been run by the Central Government and the State Government to establish such an enterprise. If the entrepreneur wants, he can start such a project under the scheme available in his state, area. The list of major machinery and equipment is as follows.
- biogas plant
- FRP Tank
- slurry storage tank
- Sledge Pump for Pumping Waste
- crusher machine
Various wastes are required by the entrepreneur as raw material for Biogas Plant, the list of which is given below.
- Crop Waste
- Animal Waste
- Municipal Waste
- Agro-Industry Waste
- Forest Waste
Required space and license
To set up a Biogas Plant, the entrepreneur needs 1500-2000 square feet of space to perform various processes properly. This type of business can be started easily from rural areas. The list of licenses and registrations required for this are as follows.
- Registration with Registrar of Companies.
- GST Registration.
- NOC from fire department.
- Enterprise Portal Registration.
- A license from the Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organization (PESO) may be required.
- Brand name and trademark registration.
Biogas manufacturing process
Keep in mind that here in the Biogas Plant, the process of making biogas through food waste, domestic waste and cow dung is being told briefly. The entrepreneur may need a few months of training to learn and implement this process completely. The raw material is handled before starting this process. Food waste is procured from agro-processing industries and municipal bodies, while cow dung is procured from dairy farms or livestock farmers.
And all these raw materials are properly collected, after that, the required food waste is removed from the storeroom and put into the crusher machine. This machine crushes it into a suitable size, so that it is easy to use for making a slurry. This crushed material and cow dung mixed with water is fed into the slurry tank. An agitator is pre-installed in the slurry tank to homogenize this mixture. This slurry is then put into the digester of the biogas plant to produce biogas in the biogas plant.
This is where this organic waste decomposes, releasing methane and other gases, and these collective forms of gases are called biogas. And this gas gets stored in the dome or floating cover of the tank. From where it is removed from time to time through a flow control valve. The waste or sludge that remains after the gas is removed is pumped into the sludge tank, which can be used as manure.
The biogas is collected through a compressor into a large gas receiver, in the process, this receiver acts as a temporary holding tank. This gas produced from the Biogas Plant can then also be filled into the gas cylinders using suitable pressure regulators and valves. Or it can also be filled in a large pressure vessel from where the entrepreneur can supply gas to his customers using a regulator and pipeline.